351. On General Hieu's site, in the section photos of armored vehicules, there is a mistake in photos #10 et #12 - Tank M-41. In fact, these tanks are M-24 Chaffee (ancestors of M-41 Walker Bulldog) with lower turret compared to that of M-41 and the cannon does not have flameguard. Most of these tanks that were in the hands of the South Vietnamese Army were ceded by the French Army after the defaite of Dien Bien Phu (some could be seen captured by the Viet Nam in this battle). These M-24 participated in the coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1960 by Duong Van Dong and Nguyen Chanh Thi. They were replaced in the beginning of 1960s by M-41. Photo #7 - M48 is tank M-41 Walker Bulldog. Photo #8 - M41 is on the contrary tank M-48 Patton. (Francois Buis)
352. I have read attentively your interview with Captain Do Duc. First, I was puzzled by the fact that the comment at the bottom has little connection with Captain's Do Duc's thoughts. Perhaps it is your comment. But the comment did not advance the reason for raising suspicion against Mr. Dam. I did personally know Mr. Dam and Captain Do Duc, and did not have an opinion about Colonel Dam. The comment also did not talk about what type a person was Mr. Dam and what kind of relationship he held toward General Hieu. During the chaotic situation, the fact Mr. Dam was allowed to accompany Mr. Toan might be merely a coincidence. Concerning Mr. Dam's subordinate carrying out the assassination, it was not an easy thing to do since Mr. Dam was someone from the 2nd Military Region and according to Captain Do Duc the HQ's interior lay-out was rather complex. As for the act of killing, if there was premeditation, the mastermind did not have to be presented at the crime scene.
At that time, I served in the small town of Binh Tuy and did not know anything at the central level, but I always believe that the 36 special pistol was very safe. An accident can happen to anybody. In a split second of inadvertence, one can make a wrong move. A martial arts master can slip his step, an engineer can get electrocuted. But the probability for that to happen to an experience person should be infinitesimal, very rare…
I have reread Colonel Long's account about General Hieu's words: My Pistol Collection has reached the number of 37, I just got a P.38, and had the grooves redone by the Equipment Unit, let me go get it and show it to you… Suppose we change the sentence to I just acquired the 38th pistol, and not a P38, it would be more accurate because a P38 would not needed to have the grooves redone.
Let's turn to Colonel Khuyen's account concerning Colonel Khang saying that General Hieu's pistol was not in good condition. I don't think such statement has a solid ground because a general and a pistol collector would not possess such a bad pistol. In his position, General Hieu had wide connection with American officers and would have access to brand new pistols coming right out of sealed boxes. I was only a Police officer at a low level and yet I was able to exchange a P38 with shining appearance and more beautiful than my friends'.
Furthermore if I possessed a rare and valuable pistol that was not safe, I would never loaded it and would locked it securely in a display a glass cabinet and would never touch it. General Hieu would not be so foolish as to play with such a bad pistol. Those are some opinions of mine. (Van Lang)
353. It was great to look at the site again...and read the new materal. ...CIA: I was NOT a part of it, but made some friends that were CIA... I can see how/why you might wonder about the CIA and a possible link to the sad event, the loss of your brother. I still wonder about some of the things that they caused, or let happen... such as OPLAN 34A (see site http://nktnv.tripod.com/stdhome.html)(They(CIA) knew something was wrong, and did nothing to change it, and a lot of good men died...)
My friend Hoa was part of STD, and was also serving as Chief of Staff ARVN 1st DIV FWD(Foreard)CP at Dong Ha when I was north of there in Cam Lo and Gio Linh districts.
In 1970 I saw things that made me think that the Americans were just wanting to leave... By then I had learnt a lot, loved Vietnam and cared greatly. With some help from friends within the 1st ARVN Division I found ways to do my job better. I was supposed to use the American FDC (Fire Direction Center) at Dong Ha, BUT they were refusing to fire on a lot of targets and at one point told me, "...unless you have Americans in danger...you might as well not even bother calling in..."
I soon learned that the ARVN TOC on A-2 (Gio Linh) would fire missions for me... was hard for me in Vietnamese, then found that they had a Lt. that spoke very good English... then we worked together. When I was going out of A-2 he would stay in the TOC Bunker and wait there till we came back into the Outpost from the field (patrol). The ARVN 105mm Howitzers(Guns) and the 4.2" mortors (Men and Guns) were VERY good, fast to adjust and get on target...VERY GOOD.
I wished that more American would have learned about Vietnam, maybe they would been better, would have fought better, and not have left. I have bad memories of War...but no such memories of Vietnam and the people, friend cared deeply for. Tin I did the best I could do, would have did more but lost a leg in 1971 and could not go back. Loosing the leg was sad...but not as sad as knowing it meant I could not return to Vietnam, to my friends...
I do not know what it is like to have, and to have lost a brother, I did try to treat every man as a brother, and miss those men very much. I fell very happy when men...like Kiet Nguyen write and refer to us as brothers (Kiet, with USN SEAL Capt Norris rescued BAT 21 on the Cam Lo (Song Cam Lo, West of Dong Ha) Hoa had located Kiet...here in the US, and was invited into the e-group I belong to.
I hope you will think of me as a new friend. (Carl Moore)
354. Following is my first impression, after having read the article entitled : "Final Report on General Hieu's Death": after spending six years researching and gathering a great amount of documents, sorting them, studying them, peeling them, and despite the complexity of the file, you now have arrived at the end of the tunnel. All these efforts lead to a result that approach close to the historical truth. The reader would notice the neutral ton, often calculated and at time passionate, but always remaining firm and accusing convincibly. Without doubt, you not only have the serenity of a judge, but also the intimate conviction of a just man. Your arguments are backed up with irrefutable documents and solid facts. It is the result of a remarkable work in depth, of patience during years after years; it therefore calls for a good consideration from readers and I think that the majority of them - beyond all divergences of opinions - would approve me on this matter.
Those persons concerned mentioned in this cloudy affair - being implicated more or less - would recognize themselves and would appreciate its true value. The guilty parties will maybe not escape human condemnation, but a thing is certain (and they knew it more than anybody else) which is divine justice is there, and that the eternal punishment is inescapable. For sure, I would not like to be at their places. . (Thach Ngoc Long)
355. In 1970-1971, I commanded an assault helicopter battalion at Camp Evans. I became friends with the ARVN 1st Infantry Division regimental commander whose name was Colonel Diem. His headquarters was located at Fire Support Base Nancy. I searched for information about him after the war without success. Just recently, I read General Lam Quang Thi's book, "The Twenty-Five Year Century." The author refers to a Brigadier General Nguyen Van Diem as commander of the 1st Division in 1974. Would this be the same officer who was the regimental commander in 1970? I was saddened to read of his death. Please let me know if you can confirm this information or if you can refer me to another source or reference. I had great respect for Colonel Diem. (Robert Gerard)
356. I found Gen Hieu's web page very informative and interesting. I will continue to visit and read more as it is also helpful to me in my research.
I am writing a history of Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV) whose members were Australian advisers in Vietnam 1962-1972. Although we have good information on Colonel Serong while he was with AATTV, not much is known about his service later. I would be very interested to make contact with Vietnamese officers who knew him and would be willing to tell me about what he did, especially in the period 1968-1975. Can you help me, please? (Bruce Davies)
357. I just came across the web site for Gen Nguyen. You posted a link on the USArmy's 19th Engineer Battalion web site. Thanks. The site for General Nguyen explains a lot of what I was doing in 1966 and 1967 and didn't know how to look up. You posted the information in 2002, so it's still being read. Thanks again. (Bob Heidersbach Cape Canaveral, Florida)
358. I believe Major Leadbetter replaced my immediate commander, the name is eluding me at the moment. I was senior advisor to the 1st Squadron. Each squadron had a captain or lieutenant and a sergeant, and a major was senior advisor for 1st Armored Cav regiment. The officer I replaced was a captain who finished his tour (with at least one Purple Heart). I only stayed with the cav unit for 69 days due to a disagreement with my counterpart. I spent the rest of my tour in infantry assignments with a 2 week interlude as G3 Air advisor. But I wasn't cut out to be in the rear and was sent to 5th Recon as Senior Advisor. They went to Vung Tau for retraining/reequipping. I moved on to 8th, then 9th Regiment as Senior Advisor to 4th Battalion.
I did see General Hieu occasionally, and he pinned one of my Vietnamese Gallantry Crosses on me. He asked how long I would be staying and seemed disappointed when I said my tour was almost over. I was asked by Col. Hayes to stay for 6 months more, but I didn't. My replacement was killed shortly after I left, so I probably did the right thing. Col. Hayes had offered me a desk job, but his replacement moved officers with a lot of field experience back to their field jobs from desk jobs and vice versa. So I don't know where I would have spent the 6 months, but probably with 4/9.
As a captain pretty far removed from division headquarters I didn't know General Hieu well enough to form an opinion. The man who would know General Hieu best from Advisory Team 70 would be John Hayes, then a colonel, retiring as a lieutenant general I believe. He was the best CO I ever had. He spent 6 years in Vietnam, always in combat assignments. He had spent 3 years in Korea. When other officers were trying to spend as little time in Vietnam as possible, he stayed on until forced to go to the US by the Army. (Curt Rich)
359. Thank you and congratulation!
Thank you for answering to one of my questions as a history buff: Is it possible that the South Vietnamese Army was as bad as its reputation projected it? For appreciating greatly the military history, I know that Hannibal, Napoleon or Lee, although they had bên defeated, they were not without merites... Furthermore, besides the final debacle, it did not appear to me the Army of the South had experienced defeats as humiliating as Cao Bang or Dien Bien Phu ... And now that I knew the answer to my question... Il will have a deep fêling toward general Hieu next time I visit Viet Nam ... Where I had encountered a former 81st Airborne Ranger...
And congratulation for building up this site. Its historical and intellectual (even moral!) values are such that I will recommend it to my young vietkieu cousins and nephews who do not now anything about this part of our history ...
Thank you very much! (Nguyen Giao, Paris)
360. Just spent about 3 days reading all your accounts and After Action Reports on actions your late Brother Gen Hieu ARVN planned commanded. My assessment is if only half of it was correct he was still one hell of a fine Officer, Just can't understand why the US was playing at out in Vietnam. Being ex military (Brit Para/SF) it appears on the face of it their was too much back stabbing and down playing between Senior Officers (Both US & ARVN) wasting time instead of getting their heads together and smashing the fighting forces of the NVA-VC (Just like WW2 and Monty and Eisenhower). From the face of these reports, their were too many good officers (Both US & ARVN) who were just pushed aside by Senior Generals etc, who just had not a clue of how to fight a COIN war.
Damn fine site, Best I have read on the Vietnam war. (Scoubie)
361. I browsed to the website that you created for your brother General Nguyen van Hieu by accident. You did the right thing for your brother. General Hieu was a good man to his family, a good general to his soldiers and not too many people knew him. I had not heard much about him, even though I came from a military family. Everybody in Vietnam heard about all of other good, uncorrupted generals like Gen. Truong, Thanh etc...and well-known political generals like Gen. Tran van Don, Cao van Vien, Lu Lan etc. I am touched in reading through General Nguyen van Hieu's Page and it brought me right back to those sad days 30 years ago.
I was in high school when I left Vietnam on a fishing boat in 1976. I was too young to be drafted but old enough to see our corrupted government. My father was a cadet from the 1st Class in Dalat and got discharged in 1963 (after president Diem got killed). I met General Ngo quang Truong here in Virginia and I admired him. Now I admire your brother General Nguyen van Hieu. I went to Trung hoc Kieu Mau Thu Duc and I saw cadets practicing military drills daily. I told my father that I will be an officer (like him) when I grow up and he opposed it (I thought my father had been forced to end his military carreer; nevertheless, he was happier later on being a civilian). Most of my uncles and aunts went to schools in the United States and came back to teach at Dai hoc Su Pham, Dai Hoc Minh Duc...and the others were officers in the Vietnamese Armed Forces.
I hope General Hieu's children are doing well (They should be, since they inherite their father's good genes). I wish Vietnam had more dedicated military men like your brother (It might have changed the outcome?? I doubted it!!). I have not been back to Vietnam for 29 years but If I ever make it back there in the future, I will pray for him...one of those who had sacrificed their life for our country. In fact, I am praying for him now and wish his family, his kids the best. (Do Dinh Anh, Virginia).
362. Sir, I'm sorry it took me so long to write you. My helicopter was the first to enter Cambodian airspace the day of the Battle on the Highway going to Snoul. I met Nguyen Van Hieu once beside a jeep in the Chup Rubber Plantation just after the tanks were destroyed on the highway to Snoul. Were you there sir?
What I saw on that field of battle was horror. I don't believe it could ever be fully explained. What I could share with your readers is, Number 1. We tried like hell to save them, and Number 2, It was on that highway that I met the Lord Jesus Christ. It was truly my Damascus road.
I have some pictures of that column which I will try to send you. The photos I have were taken just prior to the move across the Viet/Cambodian border. It would be the column that was enroute to try and support the brave ARVNs who were under siege there. I don't know what your records record, but, within two to three hours of the initial start of that fight, many fighting men were dead and many of the rest doomed to die or be wounded. If the NVA took prisoners, it would have been a miracle.
I was the aerial recon flying the ARVN Commanders and I saw firsthand the first tank blow as it was hit. I was looking dead at the tank when I saw the first flash of the explosion and the gray smoke blow out the side. We were about 80 feet above the tanks and it was almost surreal when I saw it, and when I suddenly realized what was happening, I saw infantry men flying spread eagle as the tanks ammo blew out. There were about 20 to 30 infantry men riding on the tanks and tracks. When they were hit, many were killed or blown to the sides of the road. Their only protection was the ditches that lined the highway. Sir, I saw so much fighting that my mind can't comprehend it all. But I can tell you this, if on earth there was ever a fight with fierce hand to hand combat, that infantry that was assigned to this mission partook of it. It was like a clash when the NVA ran head on into them. During the battle, as it raged fiercly, we moved out your wounded time and time again. (Dan Sutherland, Atrp, Doorgunner)
363. Thank you for having the heart to establish this web site in order for the readers to know more about the career and the death of an honest and virtuous general of the ARVN who is respected by everybody. Furthermore, many readers of young ages like me have acquired more knowledge about the political and military history of our country.
The readers are also touched by your zeal, a young brother of General Hieu, in spending efforts and time in all these 24 years in searching to understand the unjust and mysterious death of his brother.
The wording in the bulk of writings on your web site is very correct and polite. Especially your style is transparent and your remarks are very objective, rational and your writing is very civilized in the final report on General Hieu’s death, which allowed the readers to know who was the mastermind in the killing of General Hieu, who was the person who set up the plan, who was the person who did the cover-up in the death of General Hieu…
That is why we believe that your web site is very significant and has an historical value. We found great delight in reading the articles in your web site. The majority of the articles in your web site are construed in correctness and politeness, which inspired great respect in the young generation toward General Hieu’s actions and also toward you as a writer. (TD)
364. I like this page very much because its realization is very laborious, huge. (Tran Ngoc Tuyet)
365. Looking at General Hieu’s photo, I could not contain sadness in recalling the one time I got the opportunity to meet him while he was holding the position of 5th Infantry Division Commander. In 1969, as an aide de camp accompanying Lieutenant General Nguyen Van Minh, Governor of Saigon-Giadinh and Capital Special Military Zone Commander, I witnessed General Hieu’s marksmanship in the use of various weapons, from Colt 45, M16 to machine gun M60, and hitting bull-eyes at fixed and mobile targets at the firing range. That time, Lieutenant Do Cao Tri, III Corps Commander, invited Commanders of Capital Special Military Zone, 5th, 18th and 25th Infantry Division and some high ranking officers of other units to participate in trying out various weapons using infra-red vision devices introduced by the Americans with the intention to equip ARVN snipers. But in another encounter, he was simply dressed like a plain soldier having dinner with his subordinates at the mess hall. He always harbored a smile and squeezed hard the hand of his interlocutor, and did not exhibit indifference in looking the other way while offering a cold hand like some lower ranking officers than him used to do. His aide de camp once told me that, in some emergency situations, General Hieu drove the jeep to pick him up at his house (General Hieu’s aide de camp) instead of him remaining permanently at his side to present him with his hat and commander’s stick. This illustrates General Hieu’s simplicity, modesty and love toward his subordinates. (Paul Van Nguyen)
366. I am a reader of your story through the internet and book. One has to admit that we have a lot of officers competent in strategy at the levels of colonels and lieutenant colonels, one of whom was Colonel Bui Trach Dzan, who fought next to General Hieu since the time in Center Vietnam (22nd Division) as well as when he was transferred to III Corps (5th Division), especially in the battle of Snoul. I wonder what happened to Colonel Dzan nowadays. If he did not make out on time, he must be incarcerated in the North and if he survived the prison, he came out through the Humanitarian Program. I raise the question because I admire his leadership, and his name should be etched into military history of ARVN next to Ho Ngoc Can, Nguyen Manh Tuong, Lai Van Chu, Dang Phuong Thanh, Do Huu Tung, Nguyen Huu Thong…etc…many more…And the military history must eradicate the names of those general offices who were promoted based on coups d’état, and who made a mess out of South Vietnam, such as Nguyen Khanh, Cao Van Vien, Nguyen Van Toan, Pham Quoc Thuan, Le Trung Tuong (who shed tears in order to be evacuated out of Ban Me Thuot), Le Van Kim, Nguyen Van Vy (an abuser of the Military Pension Funds), Pham Xuan Chieu, do Mau, Tran Tu Oai, dong Van Khuyen, Nguyen Cao Ky, Nguyen Van Thieu, Dang Van Quang, Tran Thien Khiem, Duong Van Minh (Big Minh). An Army comprising only 1.2 million soldiers has 4 Four Star Generals; except General Do Cao Tri who did not how to fight a little bit, for the rest of the bunch, General Vien, Khiem and Minh (the Rung Sat Operation merely used March 36, not even a semi-automatic rifle) I did not see these three as having any military exploit on the battlefield (except on the bed of Saigonese ladies). Right? The more I read the military history of South Vietnam, the more I got frustrated, sorry to say! At least the game had ended thirty years ago. But as a human being, one could not suppress strong emotions witnessing the naked truths unfolding in the treasure of the military history of the Republic of Vietnam. (Tran Tha)
367. First, I want to salute you for putting the book together for the sake of World history, Family history, Self satisfaction, Curiosity...
I read the book for my own family history and curiosity. I applaud you for your persistence, determination and the desire to bring the truth out. Your analytical mind is second to none; perhaps that runs in the family...
My comments are from a person who had close family relationship with Aunt Huong and with her children Dung, Cam, Hoang, Thu, Ha, Hang). I did not know general Hieu well even though I met him quite a number of times because he was always so quiet. His children were also quiet, just like their Dad. I remember I used to come to co Huong's house everyday to pick up her children to carpool to school. Even though we sat in the car together everyday, we never said a word to one another. We were around 16 years old, I think. It's funny looking back; we were all shy! Co Huong was always so kind, friendly. She reminded me of Mother Teresa.
The book was well written. The facts were well documented. At times, I got confused, however, due to too many details for me to keep track of (names, ranking, locations...). I had to go back and reread some parts of the book and also took notes in order to stay with the story. I am not familiar with the ranking in the Army, nor am I familiar with the technical relationship of terms such as branch, division, battalion...I had to ignore these details so I could finish reading the book. Hopefully, I did not miss anything important.
The book certainly answers some of my questions. It certainly fills some of the blanks in my memory. I am so glad that you included personal letters of uncle Hieu to his wife. It's them that help make uncle Hieu more real and humane. Thanks for sharing these personal treasure with the Readers. In the few early chapters, it seems that you tried a bit too hard to prove to the readers that uncle Hieu was a good person, a good leader; thus it gave the impression of the author being bias. I also noticed redundancy in these chapters. I was particularly interested in the story about how the family got out. As you probably were aware of, every information was kept secret even from family members. The information you provided certainly helped me understand more of the situation especially the ones behind the scene. [Just to let you know that I am planning a book (for family only, not for sale) telling the specific stories of how each family members get out of VN. It is interesting to hear accounts from different view points, different age groups even though some of these members went on the same trip with each other. I would love to have some of your excerpts from your book if possible]. I was interested in the stories around the Presidential Palace. In 2002, I had a chance to visit inside the Palace. When the bomb occurred, I could picture Thieu was probably driving a golf cart through one of his underground tunnels to escape.
The event around the assassination of uncle Hieu was so sad to me. I was old enough (19) to remember what happened. I attended his funeral also. I remembered all the high ranking officers stand in salute around the coffin. I remember that the "key suspect" was one of them. Co Huong was so brave to be able to endure such a tragedy. I noticed that you could not solicit some written comments from some people. Especially after your accusations, some of them probably don't dare to get involved in writing. I was quite surprised that you were able to receive so many written comments, even the one from VN. That just shows your persistence in trying to get to the bottom of it. The reality is that you may never get to the bottom of it. It seems obvious that there are more than one possibility exists. For this reason, it is probably unfair to reach any conclusion and it is certainly unfair to decide a key suspect. As sad and unfair as it can be, I don't think that you should have pointed out in writing the "key suspect" as you did in the book. Let the Readers decide for themselves. There were definitely signs of fowl play; there were not however evidence of specific crime committed by any specific individual.
The book is no doubt doing some good to some people. I am one of them. I am so glad to be able to know more about my uncle. I feel so proud to have such a courageous uncle. He was so well rounded. Their children must feel so proud about their Dad and Mom also. Thanks for sharing your stories. I would love to remain in touch with you. Last time I wrote something to Dung and Cam was when I found out about the death of Co Hong, then I lost contact. I would love to learn more about what's going on with everybody in the last 30 years. I am sure a lot has happened. The world continues to turn; everyone continues to get older and older... (Tri Vu)
368. I was reviewing your website on Gen. Hieu again, as it is a repository of rare references to use of the M41 (I am the person who emailed you a few years ago correcting some M41/M48 captions in the photo section).
The purpose of my message is to seek, locate, and establish contacts among the Vietnamese veteran community experienced and knowledgeable about ARVN armored and armored cavalry operations during the conflict from ~1960 to 1975. I am, myself, a veteran of two American cavalry units during that conflict (one air, one armored) and while the American armored experience is well documented, there is very little committed to paper (in English, anyway) on the Vietnamese experience in similar operations....this is something that I would like to correct.
I have no political agenda, and the intention would be to prepare a paper or article, presumably on a non-profit basis, to make available to any relevant readership with an interest in an honest and realistic record of the typical experiences of ARVN armored units and crewmen. In particular, I would like to address the experiences of those units and individuals operating the M41 Walker "Bulldog" light tank, independent of, or in conjunction with, M113 APC's. There is an enormous gap in the record regarding the use and experiences of crews equipped with this particular vehicle and I'd like to see this deficiency corrected while there are still Vietnamese veterans (men and officers) available to offer their views and recollections still available. Internet forums focused on armored fighting vehicles frequently lament the lack of available information and material both "on the net" and in print.
Unlike the allied units, in which it seems every vehicle had at least one crewman with a 35mm camera, there are likewise very few quality images of M41's in Vietnam not serving in rear areas like key government and military installations. While it is understandable that the same photographic record likely never existed among ARVN crews (owing to lack of personal cameras and survival of crews and documentary evidence following the fall of the RVN government) I would like to locate any surviving examples of these for inclusion along with oral histories that could be provided by the ARVN veterans.
As I reside in Southern California, and have personal experience in combat operations in the former S. Vietnam as an armored vehicle commander, and likewise have contributed to history projects on armored vehicles and units, I hope you will find that I am well situated to document the experiences of ARVN crewmen who might be willing to share their stories. Do you have any suggestions that you think could assist me in making contact with the appropriate communities and individuals who have an interest in documenting this important facet of honorable service during that difficult conflict? I would be very grateful for any assistance rendered, and would fully credit any and all participants interested in participating. (Doug Kibbey - Scout, D Troop, 2/17th Air Cavalry, 101st Abn. - Thua Thien Prov. 1971. M113 ACAV mdr.,G Troop, 2/11th Armored Cav. - Hau Nghia, Tay Ninh & Binh Duong Prov. 1972. Life Member, 11th Armored Cavalry Veterans of Vietnam and Cambodia)
369. I have read "Do Xa Operation" and have discussed it with my father (because he had participated in this operation). He said there is a few things that should be added. He also wishes to speak with you. At the time of Do Xa Operation, he was an Airborne Ranger Company Leader. Later, in March 1975, he was caught by the VC on the battlefield (He was then 23rd Ranger Group Commander). (Hang Le)
370. The picture (h14) shows Colonel Nguyen Thanh Chuan, 3rd Military Zone Ranger Commander, saluting General Hieu seating in the helicopter. In picture #16, Lieutenant Colonel Le Tat Bien, 33rd Ranger Group Commander, was standing next to General Hieu.
The set of documents on General Hieu that you have spent time and blood to assemble is invaluable for the next generation and for ever. I am also researching documents pertaining to ARVN Special Forces. However, due to its tradition of "unsung heroes", very few knew about their military exploits. Prior to 1975, its publication was also very limited. Recently, ARVN Special Forces Lieutenant Colonel Phan Ba Ky published a book about ARVN Special Forces. But it is still inadequate (in terms of documents, pictures ...). (Pham Hoang Thu)
371. Thanks for sharing with me your very interesting gloss on excerpts of the Abrams tapes. (Lewis Sorley)
372. Your web site was very interesting and well done. The memorial area looks like it was designed for peace for both yourself and your brother. I have read extensively about the death of your brother and the reason...the corruption of many in Vietnam. I know that the rules were non-existent for many - American and Vietnamese - and one had to watch not to slip into shades of gray. I too have many unanswered questions from my time in Vietnam and the need to search is always there. I think that the search is part of finding peace and I hope that both you and I shall have some peace from our searches. (Robert)
Nota Bene - Two feet away, under my desk, are 1500 pages + of files from the National Archives that I got under FOIA after the 20 year period that they were sealed. One box of files, the CID report, was "missing"; showed entered in the Archives, but was not on the shelf. Head of the Archives stated to me in a written document that she personally checked the area and around it and no CID files. File Subject: My report of excess property from RMK Island being diverted by my LTC Commander into the Black-market in 1972. I was an Army Advisor enlisted, SP5 - wore no rank -, and I went to the field with the Vietnamese as one American on a team of 8-15 Vietnamese to set up Social Work Projects and in Saigon the LTC was bleeding off 70% of the supplies we needed. These were coming from "excess" that the U.S. Military bought and was to turn over to various units on a priority list. I saw the hit team of his Vietnamese cohorts come; only not from where I expected, to an apartment I had off the Base when I was in Saigon. The records from the Archives did not only show my LTC's operation of about 7 Mil, but where about 275 Mil had disappeared off RMK Island. So I understand not only the difficulty of being honest in the American or Vietnamese Military at the end of the American involvement in Vietnam, but the very real danger from many areas if you were honest.
- Lam Son 719: I am looking for the name and location of an ARVN Hospital that was less than 30K out of Hue...north and west toward Laos. It was situated in an old French installation and was where more seriously wounded ARVN eventually ended up. The main hospital was open bays and some officers were quartered in the old French stables. I do not know if it had Helicopter landing areas, but think wounded were brought in this way. (I drove in from an ARVN base closer to Hue.) I was there in early May 1971 working to bring supplies and with the Buddhist Chief of Chaplain on Buddha's birthday. Thank you, Robert (email@example.com)
373. My name is Hong. I am Brigadier General Nguyen Van Phuoc's daughter. My mother and my family thanh you very much for updating my father's curriculum vitae in the list of ARVN generals.
Recently, I started spending a lot of time each day reading General Hieu's website. I know that my father's death was similar to General Hieu's, an honest officer and an intelligence officer. At the time of my father's death, the press in the country mentioned clearly that he was one of the honest officers of the ARVN. When he was alive, each evening upon his returning home, I used to read newspaper articles to him. Do you know that I was his favorite child? He used to tell my mother and me, "our children and grandchildren will have to live under the Communists, because our generals are corrupt…we will eventually lose our Country; Americans are more colonialists than the French…"
Time has gone by, everything has settle down and has come the past. However, my family always cherishes our pride toward our father, especially me. At the present, I am having a comfortable life, which is an indication of the legitimacy of our pride toward our father. My mother is over 80, she is still in good health considering her advanced age. She and I are residing in Toronto. I have two daughters: one is a doctor of pharmacy, and Theresa is an electrical engineer. My mother asks you to convey her regards to Madam the General and to your family. (Nguyen Thi Hong)
374. I think your site is superb, and I see you have won many awards. It is a great tribute to General Hieu, one can learn a lot about him. I certainly did. Very well done.
I am a writer doing research on Gen. Nguyen Ngoc Loan. I came across your web site on General Hieu and thought you might be able to help. I am looking for people who knew or worked with Gen. Loan and who could tell me some things about him. My point of view is that he has been mistreated by history and I would like to tell aspects of his story more objectively -- certainly without so much negativity. This is for a book I am writing on the 1968 Tet Offensive. If you could help me in any way I would appreciate it. (Jim Robbins)
375. I am currently doing some research which has led me to your excellent website. I am seeking the battle insignia of General Vinh Loc and his II Corps. The insignia has been described as an 'eye' and it is said that he chose this as his insignia as it would frighten a superstitious enemy. I was wondering if your could help me in my research and send me a picture of the insignia used by the Vietnamese II Corps, (my search on the internet has failed). Look forward to your reply. (David Akell)
376. Thank you for establishing this website. An effort to rekindle the epic military history of the entire civilian and military personnel of South Vietnam. I have always been wondering and haven’t seen somebody mention about Henry Kissinger being a Jew. He was the author of the drama of the entire Viet Nam. Was it his intention to abandon Viet Nam in order to gain all the support for Israel at that moment? Would you be able to verify this with the resources you have in hand? Thank you. Although I was an 11th grader in 1975, I admire greatly General Hieu. (Do Trong Hieu)
377. I am a 42 year old Canadian with an unusual tale to tell. I live in Chilliwack, B.C. and a year or more ago at a gargage sale in my neighbourhood discovered several black and white photos one of which was of a soldier with a small maple leaf on his helmet.
I asked the man about it and he closed his garage sale and almost completely disappeared from the neighbourhood. A few weeks later, I spoke to his wife and learned he had died of a heart condition. She told me privately that he had crossed the border in 1966 and joined the U.S. military. He served two tours of duty and came home to Canada to shame, having ketchup swirled across his clothes one day and called a "BABY KILLER" and worse. He hid his service in Vietnam and the photos were in an old box that had been put out for a garage sale.
I promised her to write (amateur at best) a story of some of the Canadians that serviced in South Vietnam, loved and were loved in South Vietnam, worked in South Vietnam and yes died in South Vietnam. I have found stories of other Canadians in Vietnam, some in the diplomatic service, some merchants and others in the U.S. or Canadian military (advisors). Your thoughts about TET and any contact with Canadians during the war would be helpful. No names or events will be directly quoted. All I want to do is let people know Canadians served, Canadians profitted; and most of all that Canadians were not neutral in the true sense of the word.
I would like to put out a short story on the WEB called "THEY WERE CANADIANS". Any assistance would be appreciated. I barely knew this man but his widow's tears and the tales of others makes this a project I must complete. Your site is very nice. It gives a unique and interesting look at the South Vietnamese military. Your work is great and historically important to your people and the world. I am hoping in a very small way to help my people understand their role or lack of in South East Asian from 1950 to 1975. (Warren B. Curle)
378. My father is very keen about the Vietnam war, he is a former soldier himself for many years although he did not know General Hieu personally but he always admired Generals who fought courageously for the freedom of Vietnam. To him General Hieu is a very honorable man and with your new book he was really happy to be able to read and understand the life of General Hieu.
For me, I am happy to listen to my father's stories, politics is not my strong point and I notice there are a lot of politics with the Vietnam War which will take me a lifetime to understand. (Jennifer, Australia)
379. In January 1967, I was assigned to MACV Advisory Team 22, located at BAGI - at the intersection of Highway UL 1 and highway 19 (to An-Khe). I was assigned as an assistant G-3 advisor (operations) and as such I had the opportunity to be in the daily morning briefing at the Division Headquarters. I was soon very impressed with not only the General's appearance and bearing but more importantly his grasp of his job and impact on the rest of the Division HQ and the entire advisory team. The one day I especially remember was when he came back from an emergency (secret) trip he had made to Sai-Gon. When we sat down in a small room he informed us that the purpose of the trip was to select the new leader in the Viet-Nam government. From what I remember it boiled down to a very simple problem of counting heads. There were more Army (ARVN) generals in the meeting than Air Force generals. That was why General Thieu became the head of the government. Also the Army commanded the ground - the Air Force couldn't stay up in the air…
[I later met General Thieu in September 1972 at Quang-Tri City when I was an Advisor to Quang-Tri forces and we had recaptured the city after the "Easter Offensive." As major, I had been the operations advisor to Quang-Tri Sector during the April 1972 fighting.]
I also had the duty of writing some sections of the Senior Advisor Monthly Evaluation (SAME) report. It was usually very easy as the 22nd Division (at that time) was doing a good job in the Division AO (Area of Operation). Things did get a bit hairy with the 1st Cav Airmobile Division in the area. Their HQ was at An-Khe but they started operations in the Bong-Son area of northern Binh-Dinh to the west of highway. The 40th Regiment was on the east side and the 41st Regt was south of that area and north of Qui-Nhon. One Division Senior Advisor was relieved of his duties (and replaced) because he defended the 22nd ARVN Division against some of the heavy handed attitudes of the Commanding General of the 1st Cav (airmobile). I seem to remember that General Hieu had gotten along very well with that Senior Division Advisor. I stayed at the Division HQ until October 1967 when I was assigned to the 47th Regt (TD47BB) which was located in Phu-Yen. Because it was in the neighboring Province (as well as having one battalion in Phu-Bon) I lost touch with the Division HQ. I was at the 47th until September 1968, which included Tet Mau Than. During my 33 months in Viet-Nam I was only seriously wounded one time during close in fighting while working as a Battalion Advisor. (Gerald Wetzel, USA (ret), former Advisor MACV Team 22)
380. I do not know enough about all matters and it is not fair for me to judge whether your brother was or was not on or above the level of Generals Nam, Truong, Tri and Thanh. But what is more important is that he was a noble, intelligent man and inspirational for those who know of him. It is also important that more people know of your brother, what he stood for, and his character and honor. You are to be commended and thanked for your efforts to do this and your website is of tremendous value. It is an invaluable historical document, and you are to be commended for the monumental effort to compile and write all this. As many of your interviewers did, I too will burn a stick of incense in his memory. I plan to take a picture of the book cover photo, enlarge it, and have it framed on my wall. We must, while on this earth and in this life, honor and emulate those who are true heroes, those for whom honor and responsibility are more important than 'material life'.
I am very angry over the corruption, as I was then, and all the more saddened that so many courageous combatants had sacrificed for the country. I was only a low ranking officer so didn't have all the information but I always thought Thieu was not a good man; many of my ARVN friends hated him because of corruption, poor leadership, etc. I did not know then that Mach Van Truong was corrupt; all I knew was that he seemed to be, or is said to have been, a fairly effective combat leader.
Everything you've written in your website supports all that I've ever heard about your brother, General Hieu. When I heard of his death, and I was in Viet Nam then, I wondered if something fishy had occurred. As a low ranking officer one doesn't know very much, but it certainly seemed as if something was wrong. In any event, you can be sure I will tell others about your book and website so they will have the opportunity to learn more and remember Gen. Nguyen Van Hieu, an honorable and brave and intelligent man. (Bill Laurie)
381. I was delighted to discover your website and applaud your efforts to promote the remarkable qualities of General Hieu. I have many friends from Viet Nam, but unfortunately have lost contact with many of them.
I was an Army Infantry Captain and served two tours in Viet Nam. In 1969-70 I was assigned to MACV as a staff advisor to I Corps in DaNang. My responsibilities with the I Corps Information Office included coordinating press visits with ARVN units in I Corps.
Until I discovered your website and General Lam's letter dated 1 March 1999, I had no information on General Lam since I left Viet Nam in 1970.
As an advisor, I attended press briefings given by General Lam and his staff. I also gave English lessons to the General's wife and assisted with her speeches to visiting American and diplomatic visitors. Although I did not have a close association with the General I was a frequent visitor to his residence and attended official functions he hosted. I helped coordinate an appointment for and then accompanied his daughter on a helicopter flight to meet a surgeon on an American hospital ship off DaNang.
382. I recall meeting your brother on perhaps two or three occasions while he was deputy CG at III Corps, and I regret that I did not have much contact with him or know him well. I knew of his fine reputation as an exceptional combat leader, however. I am very glad that I was able to assist you and your family to pass through the gate at Tan Son Nhut on that final tragic day, and so sorry that your brother was so brutally murdered. I did not even know about that until someone directed me to your web page. I will be most pleased to hear from you. (William E. LeGro, Colonel of Infantry, US Army, Retired.)
383. First I should like to express my sincere compliments for your web site, which gives lot of information and insight. It is indeed very impressive and a great honor to your late brother. Please, accept my compliments.
Secondly, I should like to ask for your kind assistance, as I believe that you self or others you know perhaps have some knowledge about some of the people who was in power in the former South Vietnam.
Presentation: I am a Norwegian woman who is building up a historic archive about former and present leaders around the world. This archive, which also includes personally signed pictures, documents etc, is first of all a gift to my four children as I want to motivate and inspire them to learn about world affairs and the people who make the history.
Question: According to various lists, some of the former leaders of the former Republic of South Vietnam are still alive: Tran Thien Khiem, Nguyen van Loc, Nguyen Ba Can.
Do you know if some of these are living outside Vietnam, in exile in USA, France etc? And do you think it would be possible to contact these people?
I have also read about people like Nguyen Xuan Trang and Tran Quang Khoi…; are these men still alive?
I would be very grateful for your kind help as it is not very easy to find those who was in positions in the former South Vietnam. I hope to hear from you, and I thank you so much in advance for your kindness. (Eva Eriksen, firstname.lastname@example.org)
384. I was very touched and wept when I read the article "Su? Suy Ta`n" of Khiê´t Anh. I think your sister-in-law (Huong)'s words of desperation uttered from the bottom of her heart: "You killed my husband! It is you have killed my husband…!". She had pointed her finger to those who killed your brother. Although there are not sufficient proofs to come to a conclusion legally, I think that the majority of your readers had the same thoughts as you and I. There are things that do not need proofs in order to know but intuition is sufficient.
It is indeed a titanic endeavor; allow me to congratulate and praise you.
Due to you, I discover the real Thieu, an hypocrite, that all these 30 years I thought he was a pious patriot, because he repeated constantly: "Don't listen to what the Communists say, rather look at how they act," and if I look closely what he had done, he was worst than a Communist!!!
In reading "Operation Snoul" and "The Retreat of Snoul" in 1971, I remember Ding Thai Long's father, Colonel (whose name I don't recall) Armored Battaion Commander, I believe, was killed in action in that withdrawal. That year Long cried profusely and I shared his sorrow because we were close friend.
I want to do something to contribute to the rebuilding of the patriotic spirit, and to pay tribute to the everlasting courage of your brother, General Hieu, of Long's father, as well as all the valiant ARVN combatants who had sacrificed their lives under le National Flag; I think we must strive to sensitize parents of your generation and mine, in realizing that it is due to the cultural and moral inheritances left by our ancestors that have created Heroes such as General Hieu as an example to be emulated by the future generation.
That is why I want to institutionize the symbol of the "three red stripes on yellow background flag" in order to have it fly up high under the sky of VN in the future. I think that besides acquiring nowadays' scientific and technological knowledges, we must teach, explain, propagate the nationalistic character representd by our National Flag, which signifies Land protected by Heaven, the foundation of the Descendants of Dragon and Fairy. (Nguyen Van Hon)
385. I believe we met at the ARVN history conference at Texas Tech this past March. I presented a paper on General Vu Van Giai at the conference. The reason I am writing to you is because I have a question concerning one of your comments on your website. In the section entitled "General Hieu and his rapport with others," you wrote that " While sitting idle in the seat of 1st Corps Deputy Commander, General Hieu witnessed the growing tension between Brigadier General Vu Van Giai, Commanding General of 3rd Division, and General Lam, Commanding General of 1st Corps, which lead to the insubordination of General Giai who unilaterally initiated the tactical withdrawal of his units from, and thus caused the loss of Quang Tri Province before the enemy's attack." I am not trying to question your assessment of what happened in the battle, but I would like to know what caused you to come to this conclusion that Giai unilaterally initiated the withdrawal? If you have sources that show this, would you be willing to share them with me? The reason I ask is because I am working on my dissertation, which examines the role of General Giai in the war, and especially his fault in the defeat of the 3rd Division in Quang Tri province. From the sources I have seen, General Giai had no choice but to withdraw due to acts of insubordination among some of his regiment commanders and amongst the commanders of the attached units. According to the sources I have, Giai tried to hold Quang Tri province at all costs, but was unable to do so, due to the massive nature of the NVA assault and the fact that the attached Marine and Ranger units would not obey Giai's commands, because they listened only to their parent unit commanders. However, if you have evidence to the contrary I would love to see it so that I can determine what actually happened, and present an accurate portrayal of the battle in my dissertation. Also, is this the general perception among the Vietnamese community, that Giai was the main person responsible for the defeat in Quang Tri? Also, did your brother write anything about the growing tension between Lam and Giai? Do you know where I can find out more about this?
Beautiful website by the way. I think you are doing a great job to honor your brother's memory. (Jason A. Stewart)
386. What an excellent website -- I just discovered it. I was the personal pilot for ROK MG Byong H. Lew, CG, Tiger Division. (James Michener - Army Security Agency, 1963-65 - Army Aviation, 1965-69 - Philippines/Okinawa/Vietnam, 1964-67 - Southeast Asia resident, 1987-present)
387. I have re-read many times the pages in General Hieu's website. Your great work has allowed many Vietnamese and Americans to know more about General Hieu's competence and the virtue.
I urge you to continue this work in establishing a forum on "Vietnamism" that I think General Hieu has epitomized through his patriotism, courage, competence and virtue.
With his Everlasting Patriotism and Spirit, Religion, Virtue, your brother became a model to all those who still cherish their motherland. I think you must continue to regain this Everlasting Patriotism, so that the current young Vietnamese generation living overseas will proudly return to Vietnam to restitue Honor to all those who had sacrificed for VN, our motherland.
In order to accomplish this mission, the parents currently living in overseas must be able to answer the following question, “What types of Truth, Righteousness, and Beauty Vietnam possesses that other countries in which the overseas Vietnamese are now living do not possess? Why will I or will I not return to live in VN, when the Communist regime exists no more...? Or “What do the overseas Vietnamese must do to speed up the recovery of independence and freedom for Vietnam?”
I think an ideology on "Vietnamism" by means of education and culture on Vietnam must be established and propagated through the internet in order that "We return home to bath in our pond ...", with the National flag that your brother had fought for with so many ARVN combatants, in order that it will proudly display in our motherland forever...(Nguyen Van Hon)
388. I was an officer in the Vietnam Air Force. After reading your articles pertaining to General Hieu with great interest during 6 days, along with related documents, I thank you for collecting all the historical data, which allow me have all the truths concerning the despicable deeds of my military elders. Honestly, I had a very vague idea about the political situation in the south of that era; personally, since the days I departed with the motherland, I wondered about the real causes and consequences of what was happening. Concerning Hieu, a genius at odds with his time, sad events happened to him. I sympathize with your family on his sorrow; I especially bow to Hieu’s spirit, an elder who had sacrificed together with, many other elders to the country and people of Viet Nam. I wish you, your family and Hieu’s wife all blessings from God. (Tran, with 5 years in military life).
389. I am completing a book about the 1965 battles in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The book does focus on Pleiku Province with the June 1 loss of Le Thanh District Headquarters, the siege and relief of Duc Co in August and the battle of Plei Me during October.
The framework for the book is an unpublished manuscript on the battles in the Highlands by former II Corps Senior Advisor Theodore Mataxis, BG, retired, then a colonel. Many US personnel, from Special Forces to fighter pilots to MACV advisers and others, have provided me with their personal stories that serve as an expansion to the cryptic after action reports and journal entries. However, I have been able to connect with only two of many of the ARVN, LLDB, VNAF and CIDG that were involved in the battles. That is understandable after all this time that has passed.
I was an US Army captain, Artillery, Airborne serving as the Operations/Intelligence Adviser on the Pleiku Sector Advisory Team from September 1965 to April 1966, and then as an Assistant Sub-Sector adviser at Le Trung District Headquarters. At Pleiku Sector my counterpart was Nguyen Thanh Quang and we were good friends. We worked at the Province Headquarters and lived in downtown Pleiku in two team houses.
I would like to contact Vietnamese veterans that were involved in the battles in Pleiku so that I may include their stories in the book. As many comments on your website have stated, the RVN armed forces did not receive the credit due them in the American news media, motion pictures and television programs. One of the objectives of my book, PLEI ME, is to correct that problem.
I have found your website to be interesting and to have lots of valuable information. (S. Vaughn "Sol" Binzer, The Plei Me Society, email@example.com)
390. I have visited General Hieu’s website and saw many valuable documents pertaining to ARVN generals, in particular to General Nguyen Van Hieu.
You have put much labor in collecting documents, photos, articles expressing the perspectives of the contemporary and younger generation about the ARVN generals; in so doing, you allow the next generation to have a more comprehensive view of the personalities who had and have been contributing in Vietnam history of the last 50s-60s period.
In response to your call, I hereby submit an article posted on a website about the former admiral Hoàng cơ Minh. (A “young” ARVN officer)
391. I fortuitously found your website, very interesting and touching. I like it very much. I also read the list of ARVN generals, but I do not know who are still alive, who had died. I would very much appreciate if you can you tell me those who died before 1975 or in the reeducation camps. (Le Tuyet Ngan)
392. My father served with General Di in 1968-69. My father passed away 1 month ago and I have since been trying to locate information on General Di. My father was very fond of the Vietnamese people and their culture. He always wondered what had happened to General Di. Now that Dad is gone, I feel an obligation to find out for him. I have learned a great deal so far and your input is appreciated. (Al Threlkeld)
393. Please allow me to introduce myself. I am Michael R. Thompson. I work for the Department of Defense as a researcher on the POW-MIA issue. I read with interest your postings on the Battle of Snoul. Do you know of any ARVN 5th Division veterans who served during that time who I could contact? We currently have two missing Americans from that battle and I would love to talk to any ARVN veterans about their recollections. (Michael R. Thompson, firstname.lastname@example.org)
394. Just surfed into the website. A very nice tribute to the General. I served with 3rd. Bn. 1st Marines, 1967-68, machine gunner, grunt. Danang, Cua Viet, Hue-PhuBai, Thank you. (Van Scheurich USMC 1966-69)
395. I received you book four days ago. Upon receiving it I put aside all things to read it, and read it passionately. You wrote very well! The more I read, the more I saddened for the fate of a famous general. I could not fanthom that a general could ever be assassinated under the Republic of Vietnam regime, and yet it had happened. I am not a soldier but like to read books talking about the ARVN soldier because it was a past, a beautiful and also sad past... for you and your family. (Tonny Panning)
396. We thank you very much for letting us know about the death of a competent general. A unique general in the ARVN, that should be respected and forever remembered and appreciated. (Hoai Nguyen)
397. Allow me to write to you a few lines, first to thank the Heroes of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, to always remember those who had sacrificed for the country. I am a child of a veteran of the 5th Infantry Division. I had read many of your articles you write about General Hieu and the battle at Snoul… But I do not see anybody mention the 4/8th Battalion in the battles such as Snoul. This battalion was achieved the first victory on the Cambodian territories. Nobody mentioned good combatants as Kien, Hien, Da, Hai, Giang…they were famous in the 5th Infantry Division. They were kept in communist prison for more than 10 years. Or combatants of other battalions. It is quite unfortunate… I write this few lines with the hope that those still living on this free word or under the communists would never forget those who had sacrificed for the nation. (Nguyen Hien Quan)
398. When I was reading articles you wrote about General Hieu, I sensed tremendous feelings; I saw the great sacrifice of those of the previous generation, those patriots. I was filled with sadness and pride at the same time: pride because there are people like you who took up the pen, like General Hieu, General Vy… like those who had sacrificed; sadness because of those like Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky. He declared before April 30: "If Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky doesn't exist anymore, at least there is still the soldier Nguyen Cao Ky…" It is shameful having those like him who renewed contact with the communists. I felt great sadness at the thought of the ARVN combatants who had given up their lives to the country. I write this e-mail to thank our elders who had written chunks of history of our country, about the fight for freedom, about the sacrifice…in order for the next generation to always remember and admire.
I had visited several times the website http://www.michaelpdo.com/Infantry1.htm/. Mr. Phuc is a person to be admired for although he had suffered years in communist prisons, he still continues fighting for freedom. I remember having met Mr. Phuc, Mr. Kieng...in Lai Khe when my dad was garrisoned there. It was fortunate that I had the chance to meet with them. I was honored to have met Colonel Tran Van Ty, armor; he had passed away, unfortunately.
I wish that you all live pass hundred years to write more for the younger generation about your military career, about your sacrifice. Allow me to dedicate to you all the following saying: "you so lived that when died, country reclaims you - and everybody praises your reputation." (Nguyen Hien Quan)
399. I am reading the book on General Nguyen Van Hieu written by you. I reach page 315 where it is mentioned that Mach Van Truong was awarded the National Medal of Honor and the Delta Gang was corrupt when Mach Van Truong was Long Khanh's chief of province. I once served briefly under Mach Van Truong, and knew quite well the corruption apparatus of Mach Van Truong and his gang of high-ranking officers. At the present moment, I do not possess any evidences in hand, and therefore do not have anything more to say. You only knew Mach Van Truong was part of the General Nguyen Van Minh's clique? Mach Van Truong's younger sister was General Minh's second wife; which explains General Minh's efforts to include him in his corruption apparatus and to make him a general. I had shared how General Minh helped Truong with Dang Van Nham who is residing in Denmark. High-ranking officers were a bunch of inept who colluded together in a systematic corruption scheme, no wonder the Vietnam Republic had to collapse. I just want to jot down a few lines to you; if you want to know more, you can contact Dang Van Nham. (Vuong Dac Thanh)
400. The photos of the General and his family are very clear. The General looks very intelligent and handsome. I cannot find anything in his face that would explain why he had to go so early. A face full of kindness, affability and virtue. I feel sad for a skillful patriot who was cut down by a bunch of shameful thugs. (Tran Viet Hai)
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